Index of How to Read Water

HOW TO READ WATER - FULL INDEX

Page numbers in italic refer to the illustrations.

Abergavenny 43Abharah, Captain 5–8 Aborigines 34–5abyssopelagic zone 109 Acapulco Olympics (1968) 318,

319acidic soils 105

acoustic shadows 153 actinomycetes bacteria 41 Adelaide 34Admiralty 253

advection fog 203 Aegean sea 205Aelianus, Claudius 267–8 Africa 105

Agapetus fuscipes 89–90 Aïn Sefra wadi 64air: bending light 289

in foam 127humidity 92looming 322pin holes on beaches 232 pollution 202temperature inversion 155, 320 and visibility 201–2

air pressure: and capillary action

19and height of sea 19–20 and tides 243, 265

aircraft, landing on windy days 251 Airplane II (film) 271Alderney 291–2alders 38

Alexander the Great 254 Alexandria 279algae 70–2

algal blooms 72, 124–5and colour of water 124–5, 129 in lakes 108, 111and oligotrophic water 125in puddles 55and smells 106

Algenib 291Algeria 64Alpha flag 299Altair 30, 327Amazon river 125Ameletus inopinatus 92 American Civil War 153 Ammassalik maps 210, 211 ammonia 89

amphidromes 312anaerobic bacteria 319 anchored boats 191, 251, 298 Andaman Sea 311angles: boat wakes 306–7, 307

celestial navigation 286, 288, 290

measuring 194–5seeing into water 117–18, 119 seeing underwater 321

angling 86–103animals: on beaches 237–8

and lakes 104 luminescence 283–4 navigating by 214–16

[353]

246NN_tx.indd 353

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

and puddles 48–50riverbank signs 72, 73–4and tides 267–9and tsunamis 311weather forecasting with 240–1

Antarctica 329ants, beach 241 Aphrodite 126Apollonius of Rhodes 177 apparent wind 297–8 aqueducts 316

aquifers 62Arabian peninsula 262–3Arabian Sea 216Arabs, navigation 7, 194–5 archipelagoes 235Arctic 155, 206, 252, 328–31 Arcturus 327arenophiles (sand collectors) 236 artificial ponds and lakes 105–6 artists 130–1, 141Arun river 63, 78, 132–3 Arundel 78Arundel Castle 104astrolabes 195astronomy see planets; stars Atlantic Ocean 320–1

currents 245squalls 208–9storms 172Viking navigation 325–31 and wind strength 170–1

atmosphere see air atolls, coral 122, 182 aureole effect 143 Auriga 198

Australia 34–5, 125

back staffs 195backwash 229, 231, 234, 235 bacteria: and colour of water 124

and smell of water 41, 106 Will-o’-the-Wisps and Jack-o’-

Lanterns 319 [354]

badgers 48, 73–4bagpipes, Omani 189Bali 224–6Barber, Asa 237Barkley tableland 34–5 barnacles 240‘barrels’, breakers 184bars: on beaches 223–4, 228

in rivers 229Barygaza 262–3Bascom, Willard 161baths: colour of water 119, 120

plugholes 314–16Bathurst, Bella, The Lighthouse

Stevensons 279 bats 58

Baybayan, Chad K?lepa 11 bays 176–8, 177, 220 Bazalgette, Sir Joseph 64 BBC 202, 285–93

beaches 221–42bars 223–4, 228 beach crest 222 beach cusps 232 beach face 222, 228 berms 222, 228

and colour of water 120–1 formation processes 221 isolated rocks on 232–4 lifeguards 300

longshore drift 234–7low tides 261pin holes 232plants and animals 237–41 rill marks 232

rip currents 224–7, 227, 229 ripples in sand 229–34, 233 sorting of sand and shingle

235–7the step 223strandline 240swash marks 231tides and 222troughs 223–4, 228, 230

246NN_tx.indd 354

10/02/2016 14:50

undertow 229waves and 175–6, 177, 184–7,

223zones and shapes 221–4, 222

beam reach, sailing 296Beaufort, Rear Admiral Sir Francis

168–9Beaufort Scale 169–70 beech trees 38, 150 bees, indicating water 37 Bell Rock 216berms 222, 228Bible 36, 262Biesel, Francis 315 binoculars 57 bioluminescence 323 biosecurity 88birds: bathing 50

on beaches 237CDs as bird scarers 284as depth indicators on lakes 110 finding islands 35–6indicating water 35, 37 navigating by 214–15, 216, 325,

326, 330and ripples 31–2, 33 and rivers 67–9, 73, 74

Black Lug 268–9, 269 blackberries 268bladder wracks 238–9blinking lights 272–3Blow Lug 268–9, 269Blue Pool, Isle of Purbeck 123–4 ‘blue-water sailing’ 122–3

boats 3–4, 7–8at anchor 251, 298cargo vessels 300–3, 304day shapes and flags 298–300 dhows 189–99and eddies 79language of 295–7 lighthouses 278–83 navigational lights 272–83at night 271–2

index

and overfalls 216–19Plimsoll Lines 302–3, 304on sandbanks 257–9shipping channels 273–5, 300–1 shipwatching 294–308slippery water 318, 319 ‘tell-tails’ 204tidal currents 250–1Viking navigation 325–31wakes 304–5, 306–8, 307and water lilies 68water tracking 305–8waves and 181–2, 312–13see also sailing

Bodo 250boobies 35–6boots, tracking currents with 247 bores, tidal 312Borneo 125, 151Botticelli, Sandro, The Birth of Venus

126braided rivers 322–3 brain: filters 22, 140, 306

and moon circles 134 search for patterns 142, 210 sense of smell 106–7

Bramble Bank 260–1Brazil 125breaking waves 182–7, 184 breakwaters 175, 178–9, 181 breezes: land breezes 205

and reflections 137and ripples 111, 112–13, 162,

163–4sea breezes 205–6

bridges 73, 74and eddies 80plant and animal life near 67 reflections of 137, 137 reflections on underside 133 shapes of 63

British Columbia 264 British Library 210 Brittany 250

[355]

246NN_tx.indd 355

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

‘brown water’ 123 Brum, Joachim de 26 Bryher, Scilly Isles 235 bubbles: colour 127

pin holes on beaches 232 scum lanes 101–2and splashes 51

bulrushes 111buoys 273–7, 299 bushes, and wind 112 butterflies 91

caddisflies 89Calais 202calcium 69, 105 calpoaca lichen 239 camber, roads 45 camels 107 camouflage, trout 100 Canada 126

canals 80, 186–7, 316 Canopus 194, 198 Cape Agulhas 314 Capella 288

capillary action 17–19, 20 capillary waves 163 cardinal marks 275–7, 276 cargo vessels 300–3, 304 cascade waterfalls 153, 154 Cassiopeia 194, 198 Castleton, Derbyshire 86 catkins 72, 90

cat’s paws 163cattle, and riverbanks 72 CDs, as bird scarers 284 celandines, lesser 103 celestial navigation 285–93 Celts 116centrifugal force 254 Cetus 292chalk: chalk streams 63

dew ponds 105and flashiness of rivers 62–3 lakes 104

[356]

and plants and animals 105 in rivers 69Spring puddles 55–6

Channel Islands 212, 249, 291–2 channelled wracks 238–9 Chapman’s Pool 220charts, navigational lights 274–5 Cherbourg 271

Cheriton Stream 63Chesil Beach 237Chichester Bar 228 Chichester harbour 181, 216,

274 chickens 37

China 5chlorophyll 239choppy water 24Chukchi Eskimos 155cities see towns and cities Citizens’ Observatory and Ocean

Optical Monitoring 129 clapotis 174–5

clapotis gaufre 174–5, 174 Clarke, Brian 87clay: capillary action 19

and colour of water 123–4 dew ponds 105and flashiness of rivers 63

cliffs 173, 218–19 close-hauled, sailing 296, 297 cloths, capillary action 18 clouds: colour 114–15, 127

and colour of water 121–2 indicating islands 36, 114–15,

327–8over lakes 114, 115 and squalls 209 and visibility 201 waterspouts 316

coastal convergence and diver- gence, winds 207, 207

Coastguard 218 coastline 200–20

breaking waves 182–7, 184

246NN_tx.indd 356

10/02/2016 14:50

cargo vessels 300–1coastal creatures 214–16 diffracted waves 179–82, 179,

180

drying heights 260and horizon 200–1and Kelvin waves 309–10 length of 200overfalls 217–19reflected waves 173–5, 174 refracted waves 175–9, 177 shape 209–14slippery water 318–19tidal bores 312tidal variations 262–5 tsunamis 310–11visibility at 201–3winds 204–9, 207

Coca Cola 127code, navigational lights 272–3 Colorado river 79colour: of clouds 114–15, 127

and currents 245, 247, 329 DVDs 180flying fish 322foam and 126–7

glitter paths 140green flash 320lichens 239lighthouse lights 280 measuring raindrops 2 navigational lights 272 pollution indicators 70 Rayleigh scattering 301 reflections 143

sand 235trout 100of water 116–29

compasses: sand ripples as 230 shadow compasses 192–3 sunset as 285wind compasses 204–5

computer games 140 Constable, John, Moonlight

index

Landscape with Hadleigh Church

130–1, 131container ships 300Cook, Captain James 8–9, 23 Cooper, Simon 98coots 37, 69, 107coral atolls 122, 182Coriolis Effect 246, 315–16, 317 cormorants 69, 110, 267corn, as sound barrier 150 Cornwall 124, 160, 192, 200, 234,

237

corpses, washing up on beaches 247–8

Corryvreckan 318counter-flow, rivers 78 counting seconds 161, 281 ‘cowbelly’ 76cows, and riverbanks 72crabs 238, 241, 267–8crack willows 72cranefly larvae 89craters, raindrop splashes 51–2 crayfish 69, 88crest: beaches 222

waves 161Crete 301cricket, on sandbanks 261 Crofts, Stuart 86–103 Cronus 126cross staffs 195crows 37, 146, 215, 237 crustaceans 105Cunliffe, Tom 107 curlews 237currents 243–52, 308

and colour 329Coriolis Effect 315, 317 definition 244eddy fences 79rip currents 224–7, 227, 229 rogue waves 314speed 246tidal bores 312

[357]

246NN_tx.indd 357

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

tidal currents 217–19, 249–52, 328

tracking 244–5 whirlpools 318 and winds 247–8

cusps, beach 232 cyanometer 128

daisies 103damselflies 69danger marks 278Dartmoor 316Davy, Sir Humphry 86day shapes, boat signals 298–300 Dayak people 125

dead wake 308 Deakin, Roger 2

Waterlog 306 deer 48

Deneb 194–5, 327 density: and currents 245

obstacles to wind 112 Plimsoll Lines and 303 water 108

Derbyshire 145–58 derelict, definition 279 deserts: dunes 230

finding water in 37, 42 wadis 64water table 65

detergents 16–17Devon 319dew ponds 105dhows 189–99diffracted waves 179–82, 179, 180 Dip stage, celestial navigation

288dippers 68–9, 103Dipsacus 42directions, Pacific Island navigators

30disease 145–6, 157–8 distances: to horizon 200–1

nautical miles 282 [358]

Rayleigh scattering 301

visibility 202ditches 18–19, 72dive boats 299divining rods 65dogfish 238dogs 49–50dolphins 36, 210, 328–9 Doodson, Dr Arthur 270 Dorset 123–4, 217–20double tides 263Dover 171, 202, 279doves 36, 37dowsing 65–6, 66dragonflies 69, 104drains 45–6, 64Drangajökull glacier 329drift, longshore 234–7 driftwood 240drinking water, from springs 56 drops, and splashes 51–2, 52 drowning 224drying heights 260, 326ducks 31–2, 103

as depth indicators 110 and duckweed 67–8 rubber ducks 244 wakes 32, 33, 307

‘Duck’s Bottom’ effect 136, 136 dulse 239Dunaliella salina 125dunes 230

dust devils 113 DVDs, colours 180

earthquakes 159, 310east, cardinal marks 275–7 East Anglia 319East Greenland current 329 ebb tides 267, 317 Eberhardt, Isabelle 64 ecosystems, and algal blooms

124–5Les Écréhous, Channel Islands 212

246NN_tx.indd 358

10/02/2016 14:50

eddies: eddy fences 79on lakes 112–13in rivers 77–80, 95, 112 in sea 219wind eddies 219

Edinburgh Military Tattoo 189 eels 69egg cases, whelk 238Egypt, ancient 64

Eiseley, Loren 2elephants, counting seconds 161,

281Elizabeth I, Queen 212 emotions, and smells 107 energy: and swell 166

tidal bores 312waves 159–60, 165–6, 171, 173,

175, 179, 181, 183, 185 English Channel 196–7, 203, 285,

291, 316Ephemeroptera 91epidemics 145–6, 157–8 epilimnion 108equator, lunar declination 261–2 equinoctial tides 259, 261Eric the Red 330erosion: colour of water 126

and puddles 46–8

rivers 60–1, 68, 72, 81 estuaries: colour of water 129

currents 245, 247

slippery water 318–19 euphotic zone 108 eutrophication 124Eyam, Derbyshire 145–6, 154,

157–8‘eyebrow clouds’ 114 eyesight 22, 57, 156–7

fabrics 141–2Faeroes 171Falmouth 139fan waterfalls 153, 154 Fanning, Captain Edmund 30

index

farming, and noise reduction 151–2

Faroe Islands 327–8, 330fences, and wind 112fertilizers, algal blooms 72fetch, waves 168, 170, 171fire, Will-o’-the-Wisps and Jack-o’-

Lanterns 319fish: and algal blooms 124

on beaches 238finding islands 36fly-fishing 86–103flying fish 320–2navigating by 214–15and rivers 59, 132–3and water quality 69–70 weather forecasting with 216

fixed lights 272, 273–4 flags: boat signals 299–300

lifeguards 300

and wind speed 204, 219 flaser ripples 231flash floods 64, 69 flashiness, rivers 61–5 flashing lights 272–4, 275–7,

280–2 flies 37

floods: and bridges 63and capillary action 19, 20 flash floods 64, 69height of 64–5signs of 65storm surges 265in towns and cities 64

Florel-Ule Scale 128 flotsam: definition 279

and currents 244–5, 248 and eddies 78ocean gyres 317 strandline 240

tidal rivers 266–7

windrows 318 fly-fishing 86–103 flying fish 320–2

[359]

246NN_tx.indd 359

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

foam 126–7, 187fog 202–3, 237Fomalhaut 291footprints 49–50, 73–4Force 8 winds 185Forel, François Alphonse 128 Forestry Commission 40 forests: clouds over 114

petrified forests 261 France 250, 293, 312 freeboard, cargo ships 302–3 freshwater: shortages of 106

slippery water 319friction, slowing winds 206–8 ‘friction zones’, in rivers 96 frigate birds 35–6frogspawn 55full moon 256, 259, 267 Fuscidea lightfootii 41

gales 196–7Galileo 254Galveston, Texas 172geese 69, 107Gemini 291geology: and flashiness of rivers

62–3lakes 104–5and puddle formation 44–5,

55–6water table 65

giant waves 312–14, 313 Gibraltar Straits 245 Gilbert Islands 9, 241 giraffes 2

glaciers 105, 126, 329, 331 Glamorgan 312–13glass 13, 61glides 82, 94–6

glitter paths 131, 138–41, 139, 196, 197–9

gnats 94Google Earth 329 Grand Canyon 78–9

[360]

‘Granite Eddy’ 78–9 grasses: lawns 39, 142

and puddles 55 riverbank signs 73 signs of floods 65 signs of water 39

gravel 19, 60, 81–2 graves 157–8gravity: backwash 234

and capillary action 17 gravity waves 166 moon and 253–4, 256 and puddles 45 raindrops 16

rip currents 225and stickiness of water 14 sun and 256tidal currents 249–50

Great Dog 196Greece 56, 177, 215, 305 Greece, ancient 177, 204 green flash 320Greenland 209–10, 325, 328–9 groins 235Guardian 257–9Gulf Stream 247gulls 90, 107, 216, 237gyres 317

haar (mist) 4haloclines 109Hampshire 39–40, 63Hancock family 157–8hands, webbing between thumb

and forefinger 2 harbours: currents 251

and Kelvin waves 310 lighthouses 281navigational lights 271–2, 274–5 transit marks 212

waves and 177–8hats, and looking for fish 101 Hawaii 208, 244, 247–8

246NN_tx.indd 360

10/02/2016 14:50

headlands 176–8, 177, 211, 219, 220, 267–8

Heathrow Airport 124hedges 150heeling, boats 297–8helicopters, signs of water in cities

42–3Hell’s Mouth 250

hemp agrimony 68, 111 herons 74, 103 Hertfordshire 319 Hesiod 126

Heyerdahl, Thor 321 high-frequency sounds 148high pressure 19, 243high tides 253–5, 259, 261, 263 Highlands, Scotland 90Hillier, Lake 125Himalayan Balsam 41–2, 88 Hinky Punks 319Hipour 30, 213Hobby Lanterns 319holes, in riverbanks 73‘holes’, in rivers 84–5, 85 Holm, Gustav 209–10 holomictic lakes 107–8Homer 177, 178

Iliad 206horizon: celestial navigation 286,

291, 292 distance to 200–1 looming 322

horse chestnuts 104horses 57horsetail waterfalls 153, 154 Houghton Bridge 63

Hugo, Victor 312hulls, cargo ships 301–3, 304 humic acids 129humidity 92hunting 152, 155hurricanes 172hydrogen atoms, in water 14,

16–17

hydrogen sulphide 106 hydrological cycle 62 hygroscopy 241–2 hypolimnion 108

Ibn-Jubayr 294Ibn Majid, ‘The Fawa’id’ 182–3 ice 53, 108, 193icebergs 329Iceland 244, 325, 328, 329–30 Iglulingmiut people 252index error, celestial navigation

288India 5, 262–3

Indian Ocean 310 Indonesia 224–6 insects: on beaches 240

and fly-fishing 87, 90–1, 93–4, 98–9

and humidity of air 92 indicating water 36–7, 41 and polarized light 92–3 and puddles 55

and rivers 69, 88–90on surface of water 17, 113–14,

134interference patterns 32–3, 33,

141, 231International Code of Signals

299

International Sand Collectors Society 236

Internet 281Inuit 209–10, 211, 252, 322 Inverness 43Iotiebata Ata 29–30, 115 Ireland 239iron, and colour of water 124 isharat (nautical wisdom) 7 Islam 192–3islands: archipelagoes 235

bending winds 208 birds and 35–6clouds over 114, 327–8

index

[361]

246NN_tx.indd 361

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

Pacific Island navigators 24, 26–31, 29, 33

in rivers 76–7Isle of Purbeck 123–4Isle of Wight 181–2, 282–3, 316 isolated danger marks 278 isophase lights 273Iuka, Battle of (1862) 153

Jack-o’-Lanterns 319Japan 273, 321jellyfish 36, 284, 331 Jersey 212, 250, 260 jetsam, definition 279 Johnson, Dr Samuel 86 Jökulfir ir fjord 329 Junction puddles 46–7, 47 Jupiter 58, 291

Jura 318

Kalathalay, Saleh 311Kalsoy fjord 328kamal 194–5kapesani lemetau (the talk of the

sea) 9katabatic winds 206, 329 Ka’? coast 247–8kayaking 79, 82–5 Kazakhstan 291kelp 252Kelvin, Lord 306, 307Kelvin waves 309–10Kent 200killer whales 328kingfishers 37, 73, 103 Kiribati Islands 9Kirkwall 326, 330Kirman 5‘knap’, surface of water 142 Knightsbridge 57Kort, Paul de 151–2 Kuroshio Current 247Kuta 224 ladder-back ripples

230 [362]

lagoons, clouds over 114 Lake District 106, 115 lakes 10, 104–15

algal blooms 124–5 artificial lakes 105clouds over 114, 115 colour of water 124, 126 depth 107–8, 109, 110–11 eddies 112–13 eutrophication 124 glaciated lakes 105

insects on surface of 113–14 local winds 113ox-bow lakes 81, 105, 234 ripples 112–13

silting up 111 smell of 106 waves on 171 zones 108, 109

Lamb, Horace 77 Lancashire 319land: signs of water 36–43

using birds to find 36

see also islands
land breezes 205land fog 203landmarks: mental maps 211

sounds and 147–8, 148

and visibility 202Landnámabók 325, 328landscaping, noise reduction 151–2 Langmuir circulation 318larvae, aquatic insects 91lateen sails 191lateral marks 273–5latitude: celestial navigation 194–5,

287, 291, 292–3 Viking navigation 325

lawns 39, 142Lawton, Rebecca 79lead pollution 70leats 316leaves: brown leaves in winter 150

rain drops on 15–16

246NN_tx.indd 362

10/02/2016 14:50

lecanora lichen 239lee scree 60–1left-handed people 96–7lens waves 133Leonardo da Vinci 15, 79Lewis, David 28–30, 114, 115, 213,

240–1, 323, 324–5 lichens 40–1, 239, 306 lifeguards, flags 300 ligan, definition 279 light 130–44

aureole effect 143bending by atmosphere 289 and colour 127and colour of water 119–22 diffraction 180glitter paths 131, 138–41, 139,

196, 197–9green flash 320in lakes 107–8and lichens 239looking for trout 100–1 looming 322moon circles 134 moonlight 130–1, 133–4 and mosses and algae 70 polarized light 92–3, 141 and river plants 67 seaweeds and 239strange lights 283–4 underwater lightning 323 see also navigational lights

lightfoot lichen 41Lighthill, Sir James 249 lighthouses 201, 213–14, 216,

278–83lightning, underwater 323 limestone 62, 69, 151 limpet teeth 237Lindsay, David 34–5 Lindsay, Harold 9 Littlehampton 106Loch Ness 105London 43, 64, 155

index

Long Beach, California 178–9 longitude, celestial navigation 287,

291longshore drift 234–7 looming 322 low-frequency sounds 148 Low Point puddles 44, 46 low pressure 19, 265low tides 253, 259, 261 lowland rivers 59–60, 125 lugworms 268–9, 269 lunar declination 261–2

McCully, James Greig 254 magpies 146Maiana 29, 115Malaysian Airlines 240 Manaus 125

Manning’s Formula 59 maps: Inuit 209–10, 211

mental maps 211springs on 56 water-sound maps 146–58

marcescence 150Markab 291marsh marigolds 39 Marshall Islands 26–9, 29 martins 37, 73

le mascaret (tidal bore) 312 Massachusetts Institute of

Technology 315Mau Pialug 214–15Mauritius 285mauve stinger 284mayflies 90, 91–2, 97meanders 81, 82Mediterranean Sea 125, 143, 245,

247, 262Meltemi winds 205 memory, and smells 107 meniscus 13, 18mental maps 211 mercury 13, 198 merganser duck 69

[363]

246NN_tx.indd 363

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

Merry Men of Mey 250Met Office 170–1metamorphosis, aquatic insects 91 methane, Will-o’-the-Wisps and

Jack-o’-Lanterns 319Mexico, Gulf of 263Micronesia 26, 168, 214–15, 324–5 midges 90migration, eels 69miles, nautical 282milk, splashes 51minerals: and colour of water 124,

129in rivers 69

mining 124mirror effect, flying fish and 321 mists 3–4, 201Moken sea gypsies 311 molecules, water 14, 16–17, 246 Mompesson, Rev. William 145–6 Mompesson’s Well, Derbyshire

146–7, 149, 150moon: and flotsam on tidal rivers

267full moon 256, 259, 267 glitter paths 139, 140, 196,

197–9lunar declination 261–2 moon circles 134moonlight 130–1, 133–4new moon 256, 259, 267 orbit of Earth 255spring and neap tides 256–7,

258, 259supertides 260, 262and tides 159, 244, 253–9, 263

moorhens 69moors 104–5Morecambe Bay 260Morse code 273, 299mosses 53, 70–1, 157 mountains, katabatic winds 206,

329mud: capillary action 18–19

[364]

and colour of water 125 footprints in 49–50mud banks 76silting up lakes and ponds 111 see also puddles

Muslims 192–3 Muttrah 188–9

names: places 43 plants 90

National Coastwatch Institution 218–20

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 270

Native Americans 57, 152, 264 Nautical Almanac 288nautical miles 282Navajo Indians 57

naval facilities 299–300 navigation: Arabs 7, 194–5

and colour of water 122–3 pookof 214–15sounds and 147–8, 148by stars 194–5, 198, 285–93 tidal currents and 252 transits 211–13

using puddles 54Vikings 325–31wind compasses 204–5see also Pacific Island navigators

navigational lights 272–83 boat signals 299cardinal marks 275–7, 276 code 272–3

isolated danger marks 278 lateral marks 273–5 pilotage plans 274special marks 278

Navigator puddles 44, 53–4, 55 neap tides 252, 256–7, 258, 259 needles, floating on water 16–17 Needles Lighthouse, Isle of Wight

282–3 Negro river 125

246NN_tx.indd 364

10/02/2016 14:50

Neolithic settlements 228 Netherlands 151–2, 247, 265 new moon 256, 259, 267 New York 160

Nicolson, Adam 56 night 271–93

in Arctic Circle 328 navigational lights 272–83 strange lights 283–4waves 171

Nike trainers 244–5 Nikunua 241Nile, River 247 nitrates 72, 92 Noah 36

Noctiluca scintillans 283–4 non-tornadic waterspouts 316–17 Norse stories 36, 325north, cardinal marks 275–7 North Sea 3–5, 122, 247, 265, 313 North Star (Polaris) 194–5, 286,

286, 287, 288, 291, 292–3,

327Northern Ireland 284Norway 3, 126, 250, 325 nuthatches 50nutrients: and algal blooms 124–5

and colour of water 129 duckweed and 67–8 oligotrophic water 125

nymphs, aquatic insects 91–2

oak trees 150oases 37O’Brien, M. P. 178–9 occulting lights 273, 282 ocean gyres 317

oceans see seas and individual oceans octants 195offshore winds 185oil 126, 164, 165, 239

Old Testament 36 oligotrophic water 125 Oman 188–99, 304, 308

index

Orange-tip butterflies 91 Ordnance Survey 56organic oils 126, 164Orinoco Delta 252Orion 190, 198, 291, 320 Orkney Islands 228, 326 Orwell, George 318oscillating waves 186–7, 230–1 Oslo 3

otters 39, 73, 74, 268, 306 overfalls 217–19Overhang puddles 44, 52–3 ox-bow lakes 81, 105, 234 oxygen 14, 67, 92, 106, 124 Oyster Pond, Littlehampton 106 oystercatchers 237

Pacific Island navigators 8–9, 11, 26–31, 324–5

and birds 35–6and clouds 36, 114–15and colour of water 122 looming 322navigating with stars 291pookof 214–15stick charts 28, 29swell patterns 24, 27, 32, 167–8 transits 213underwater lightning 323and waves 159weather forecasting with crabs

240–1wind compasses 204–5

Pacific Ocean 23, 257, 317 Pacific Voyaging Society 324 Pahl, John 317, 326–30 pareidolia 142, 210

parmelia lichen 239particles: and colour of water

123–4, 125–6, 128–9 lee scree 60–1mud 18–19reflecting light 132, 142–3 and shadows 143

[365]

246NN_tx.indd 365

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

and speed of rivers 61paths, puddles on 46–8, 54, 55 Peak District 86, 145–58peat 104pebbles 61, 237Peg-a-Lantern 319Pegasus 291Pelagia noctiluca 284 Peloponnese 215perigean spring tides 259, 261 periwinkles 238Persia 5–7perspective, reflections 135–6 petrichor 41petrified forests 261pH levels, rivers 71Pharos of Alexandria 279Philip II, King of Macedon 205 phosphates 72, 92 phosphorescence 283–4 photosynthesis, mosses and algae

70phytoplankton 129, 329 pigeons 37pillows, in rivers 83, 84 pilot whales 328pilotage plans 274pin holes, in sand 232 place names 43plague 145–6, 157–8 planets 58, 139, 198 plankton 283–4, 329 plants: on beaches 238–9

capillary action 18as flood markers 65holding water 42indicating water 38–9, 40, 41–2 in lakes 104, 108, 110–11 mosses and algae 70–2names 90and puddles 55rain drops on 15–16and rivers 67–8and smell of rain 41

[366]

Plimsoll, Samuel 302Plimsoll Lines 302–3, 304Pliny 292The Plough 198, 286, 286, 292,

327 plugholes 314–16

plunging breakers 184, 184 pockets, in rivers 94–6 Podolsky, Brian 58Point of Ayr 213

points of sail 296–7, 296Polaris (North Star) 194–5, 286,

286, 287, 288, 291, 292–3,

327polarized light 92–3, 141 police sirens 148pollen 124pollution: air 202

lead 70oil 164in rivers 89–90, 92

Polynesia 168, 324–5see also Pacific Island navigators

Polynesian Voyaging Society 247 ponds 10, 21–2

algae in 70, 124–5 artificial ponds 105–6 colour of water 123–4 ducks on 31–2, 33 ripples 22–6, 25, 162 silting up 111

water lilies 68 Pooh Sticks 74pookof 214–15pools: rock pools 238

in rocks in rivers 60water feature in rivers 82, 83,

94–6 poplar, black 40

popply water 95–6porous rocks 55–6, 62–3 port marks 273, 275 Portland Bill, Dorset 217–18 ports see harbours

246NN_tx.indd 366

10/02/2016 14:50

position line, celestial navigation 290, 291

powders, colour 127 prevailing winds 27, 53, 246 Proctor, Ian 9–10propellers 308puddles 44–58, 193

animals and 48–50drying 54and erosion 46–8growth of 48Junction puddles 46–7, 47Low Point puddles 44, 46 Navigator puddles 44, 53–4, 55 Overhang puddles 44, 52–3 plants and 55

rain and 53–4reflections in 117ripples on 50on roads 45–6Seismometer puddles 44, 57–8 Spring puddles 44, 55–6 Tracker puddles 44, 46–9 Turn puddles 47, 47, 50

puffins 37, 329Puluwat Islands 213 punch-bowl waterfalls 153, 154 Purbeck, Isle of 123–4

Qantab 188 quadrants 195

rabbits 48, 49, 110 radiation fogs 203 radio waves 155 rain: and floods 69

forecasting 202 and puddles 52–4 raindrops 2, 15–16 rivers and 62smell of 41 splashes 51–2and water table 65

rainbows 2

ramalina lichen 239 rapids 83–5Rayleigh scattering 301 rays 238

Red River, Cornwall 124 ‘red tide’ 125reed canary grass 65 reeds 40

reefing sails 295, 296, 297–8 reefs 30

cardinal marks 277clouds over 114and colour of water 122 drying heights 326neap tides 257rip currents 225swell shadow 23and waves 175, 182weather forecasting with 241

reflected waves 173–5, 174 reflections: breezes and 137

and calm water 134–5and colour of water 117–18, 128 glitter paths 131, 138–41, 139,

197–9moon circles 134moonlight 130–1, 133–4 perspective 135–6polarized light 92–3 Seismometer puddles 57–8 of sounds 148–9on underside of bridges 133 vertical structures 137, 137

refracted waves 175–9, 177 Retba, Lake 125Reunion Island 240 Reyjkjavik 329–30

ribbon waterfalls 153 Richardson, Lewis Fry 79 riffles 82, 83, 94–6rifle marksmen 57 right-handed people 96–7 Riley Graves, Eyam 157–8 rill marks 232

index

[367]

246NN_tx.indd 367

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

rip currents 224–7, 227, 229 ripple maps 24ripple shadows 23, 24 ripples 162–4

birth of waves 165–6 cat’s paws 163currents 247 dampening with oil 164 definition 25

flaser ripples 231interference patterns 32–3, 33,

141, 231on lakes 112–13on ponds 22–6, 25, 162 in puddles 50and reflections 137, 137 the rise 98–9on rivers 247in sand 229–34, 233 slick lines 318and splashes 51wakes 32, 33 wavelengths 161

the rise, fly-fishing 98–103rites of passage, Pacific Islanders

11rivers 10, 59–85

banks 18–19bars 229bends and meanders 68, 80–2 birds and 37, 67–9, 73, 74 boat wakes 307braided rivers 322–3colour of water 118, 125, 129 counter-flow 78drying up 34, 66eddies 77–80, 95, 112erosion 60–1, 68, 72, 81 falling into 71finding 39–40fish in 59, 69–70flashiness 61–5floods 19, 20, 63–5, 69 fly-fishing 86–103

[368]

foam on 126–7 helicopters and 43‘holes’ 84–5, 85lee scree 60–1lowland rivers 59–60, 125 minerals in 69

mud banks and islands 76–7 pillows 83, 84plants and 67–8pockets 94–6

pollution 89–90, 92and rain 62riffles and pools 82, 83, 94–6 ripples 247riverbank signs 72–4, 78 slippery water 318–19speed 59–60, 68, 71, 74–7 straightness 80thalweg 74–5, 75, 81tidal rivers 69, 266–7trees and 38, 38, 40 tributaries 125upland rivers 59–60, 70and water table 65–6, 66see also bridges; streams

roads: camber 45 puddles 45–6 ‘rock flour’ 126

rock pools 238rocks: on beaches 232–4

fish and 96and flashiness of rivers 62–3 lichens on 239moss on 71navigational lights 278 pillows in rivers 83, 84and puddle formation 44–5 in rivers 60, 61Spring puddles 55–6 underneath lakes 104–5and water table 65 waterfalls 153

rogue waves 312–14, 313 Romans 279, 316

246NN_tx.indd 368

10/02/2016 14:50

roots, trees 37–8rotation, Earth’s 309, 314–15 Royal Institute of Navigation 330 Royal Yachting Association 5 rubber ducks 244Rubens, Peter Paul, Landscape by

Moonlight 130–1 ‘Rule of Twelfths’ 264 running, sailing 295, 297 rushes 146Russell, John Scott 186–7 Russian Federation 155

Sahara 37, 230sailing 3–4, 7–8, 111, 194

cat’s paws 163lateen sails 191and overfalls 216–19 points of sail 296–7, 296 and squalls 208–9 ‘tell-tails’ 204tidal currents 250waves and 181–2winds and 295–8

St Agnes, Scilly Isles 235 St Alban’s Head 218–20 St Helier 250St John’s Wort 90

St Malo 250St Mark’s Fly 90salmon 69, 89, 284salt water: and currents 245

haloclines 109 hygroscopy 241–2 Plimsoll Lines 303 in rock pools 238 salty lakes 125 slippery water 319

Saltstraumen 250sand: on beaches 221, 223

capillary action 19clouds over 114colour 235and colour of water 120–1

dunes 230pin holes 232ripples in 229–34, 233 sand collectors 236 sandcastles 186sorting on beaches 235–6 swash marks 231

sand-hoppers 240sand martins 37, 73 sandbanks: braided rivers 323

cricket matches on 260–1 navigational lights 274 rip currents 225stranded boat on 257–9

sandpipers 69‘Sandyduck 97’ 221Sark 249satellite dishes 149Saussure, Horace-Bénédict de 128,

129saw wracks 238–9

Scara Brae 228scent-mapping 106–7Schipol airport 151–2Scilly Isles 235Scotland 90, 239, 244, 247, 250,

294, 318 scum lanes 101–2

sea belt (seaweed) 239 sea breezes 205–6sea fleas 240sea fog 203

sea gypsies 311‘sea sparkle’ 283–4sea walls 173–4, 180–1, 180, 243 seabed: breaking waves 183–4

and colour of water 120–3 refracted waves 176, 178–9 wreckage on 279

seals 326seas and oceans: algal blooms 125

amphidromes 312colour of water 116, 117–18,

119, 120–3, 126, 129

index

[369]

246NN_tx.indd 369

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

currents 243–52depth 26eddies 219finding islands 35–6flying fish 320–2foam on 126–7, 187height of 19–20horizon 200–1ocean gyres 317Pacific Island navigators 27–31,

32smell of 41squalls 208–9swell 166–8, 171–2vortices 314–16windrows 318zones 109–10see also tides; waves and individual

seas and oceans

seasons: changes to beaches 228 and smells 106winds and 27and zones in lakes 108

seaweeds 70, 238–9, 318 Second World War 257 seconds, counting 161, 281 sectored lights 280, 282 sediment: beach cusps 232

braided rivers 322–3capillary action 19and colour of water 125, 129 deposited in rivers 61, 68, 76, 81 interference ripples 231in lakes 111longshore drift 234–7see also sand

seeds 40, 41–2segmented waterfalls 153 Seine, River 312Seismometer puddles 44, 57–8 Senegal 125serrated wracks 238–9Severn, River 263, 312sewers 64

[370]

sextants 195, 213, 285, 288, 292 shadows: absence in pure water

143acoustic shadows 153and colour of water 121–2 as compass 192–3and puddles 54, 55and river plants 67seeing underwater 132–3

Shahriyari, Captain 5–7 Shapiro, Ascher 315 Shatner, William 271 shells, crustaceans 105 shingle 236–7

shipping see boats
shipping channels 273–5, 300–1 shipping forecasts 171, 202 shipwrecks see wrecks
shoes, tracking currents with 244–5 shoveller ducks 110shrimps, freshwater 89, 92signal crayfish 88signals: boats 298–300

navigational lights 272–83 silt see sediment
sinkholes 154sirens 148

Sirius 196Skerry of Vasa 326 sky: blueness 128

and colour of sea 118, 121–2 green flash 320Viking navigation 327–8

slack water 251, 264 slick lines 164, 165, 318 slippery water 318–19 sloops 294–5smell of water 41, 106–7 snails 67Snell’s Law 177snow 53, 230snowdrops 156Socotra 216‘soft spots’, in rivers 96

246NN_tx.indd 370

10/02/2016 14:50

soil: acidic soils 105capillary action 18–19and flashiness of rivers 62–3 and puddle formation 44–5 smell after rain 41

solarstein (sunstone) 325–6 Solent 252, 257–9, 260–1 Somerset 319sonar 109

sounds 146–58diffraction 180in fog 237and navigation 147–8, 148 noise reduction by landscaping

151–2of rivers 60, 96sound barriers 150sound waves 155and temperature inversion 155 tide turning 267trees and 150–1underwater 109–10whirlpools 318white water 149–50, 154–5 winds and 147, 152–3, 155

south, cardinal marks 275–7 South Africa 314 Southampton 257 Southampton Water 263 Spain 293

spannel 232–4speed: currents 246, 250, 251–2

flash floods 64rivers 59–60, 68, 71, 74–7 tsunamis 310waterspouts 317waves 162, 175–6, 187 wind 168–71, 219

sphagnum moss 71 spiders’ webs 41, 237, 241 spilling breakers 184 spindrift 185splashes 51–2, 52Spring puddles 44, 55–6

index

spring tides 252, 256, 258, 259, 260, 266

springs 62–3, 104, 146–7, 149 spruce trees 150squalls 172, 208–9starboard marks 273, 275 starfish 241

Stargazing Live (TV programme) 285–93

stars 327glitter paths 139navigating by 30, 194–5, 198,

285–93star paths 291–2

Stevenson, Robert 216stick charts, Pacific Islanders 28–9,

29

‘stickiness’, of water 14–18, 246 ‘still-hunting’, Native Americans

152Stone Clinger mayflies 91–2 stonefly nymphs 91storms 244, 304

changes to beaches 228 and colour of water 126 flooding 19, 20sailing in 196–7

squalls 208–9 storm surges 265 swell 171–2 typhoons 7

strandline 240 strange lights 283–4 streams: banks 18–19

chalk streams 63mosses and algae 70–2 riffles and pools 82, 83 smell of 41sound of 149–50, 152–3 see also rivers

street names 43 Stroma Yoles 294 submarines 300, 306 Summer Triangle 327

[371]

246NN_tx.indd 371

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

sun: aureole effect 143 compasses 192–3 direction of 53–4and energy in waves 183 glitter paths 138–41, 139 looking for trout 100–1 sunrise 287, 320

sunset 285, 286–7, 320 temperature inversion 320and tides 256–7, 258, 259, 263 and wind strength 171see also light

sunglasses 93, 141 sunstone 325–6 Superaga 20 supertides 260, 262 Sur 189, 191–3surf, clouds over 114 surf beat 186

surface of water: calm water 134–5 currents and 247flying fish and 321insects on 17, 113–14, 134 ‘knap’ 142

lens waves 133meniscus 13, 18oil on 164reflections 132, 133surface tension 16–17, 163–4,

165–6 surfactants 127

surfing 172, 176, 184, 312 surging breakers 184, 185 Sussex 63, 104–5, 223 Sutil (schooner) 79 swallets 154

swallows 37, 102swamps 319Swanbourne Lake, West Sussex

104–5, 107swans 69, 110, 115swash 229, 231–2, 234, 235 swash marks 231, 240swell 162–3, 166–8, 171–2

[372]

definition 25interference patterns 32–3 Pacific Island navigators 27–31,

32swell maps 24swell shadow 23, 27

swifts 37swimming: drying off after 241–2

lifeguard signals 300 and rip currents 224–6 and tidal currents 252 underwater 321wake patterns 306

swimming pools 120, 133, 134

tadpoles 55Tahiti 8–9Talacre beach, Wales 213–14 Tarawa 29, 115Tarawa, Battle of (1943) 257 Tarka the Otter 306tarmac, and puddles 45Tatua, Teeta 9te lapa (underwater lightning) 323 teasels 42‘tell-tails’, sailing 204 temperatures: bending winds 208

and currents 245and fog 203katabatic winds 206in lakes 107–9looming 322Plimsoll Lines and 303 temperature inversion 155, 320 and tides 265

and underwater sounds 109–10 water by beaches 223wind compasses 205

terns 35–6thalamus 107thalweg 74–5, 75, 81Thames, River 43, 64, 155, 243,

260, 267, 307 Thames Barrier 317

246NN_tx.indd 372

10/02/2016 14:50

thermals 216thermocline 108–9 thermohaline currents 245 Thomas, Stephen 214–15 Thompson, Nainoa 208, 247–8 tidal bores 312tidal currents 217–19, 328 tidal rivers 69tidal waves see tsunamis
tides 159, 253–70

air pressure and 243, 265 amphidromes 312 animals and 267–9and beaches 222 coastline and 262–5 definition 244

double tides 263drying heights 260, 326 equinoctial tides 259, 261 height 19, 255–6, 261–5high tides 253–5, 259, 261, 263 low tides 253, 259, 261lunar declination 261–2moon and 244, 253–9neap tides 252, 256–7, 258, 259 perigean spring tides 259, 261 ‘Rule of Twelfths’ 264slack water 251, 264slippery water 319spring tides 252, 256, 258, 259,

260, 266storm surges 265sun and 256supertides 260, 262 temperatures and 265 Thames Barrier and 317 tidal currents 249–52 tidal ‘races’ 250tidal rivers 266–7tide ‘gates’ 250tide tables 253winds and 265

Time and Tide Bell 243 tin mining 124

index

Todd riverbed, South Australia 34 Tonga 204tornadic waterspouts 316–17 towns and cities: finding water in

42–3floods 64place names 43 puddles 46

Tracker puddles 44, 46–9 tracking 305–8tracks, puddles on 46–8, 54, 55 trains of waves 186

transits, navigation 211–13 translation waves 187transverse waves 307Traveller’s Palm 42treasure hunting, on beaches 236 trees: association with water 40

capillary action 18 dampening wind 113 filtering sounds 150–1 indicating water 38 and puddles 52–3 reflections 136, 136 on riverbanks 72–3 roots 37–8

Tresco, Scilly Isles 235Trinity Buoy Wharf, River Thames

243troughs: beaches 223–4, 228, 230

waves 161trout 59, 69–70, 87, 90, 97–103 true wind 297–8tsunamis 159, 310–11Tuamoto Archipelago 23Tuareg 230Tullock, Gordon 217Turn puddles 47, 47, 50twilight, celestial navigation 286–7 typhoons 7

Uck river 63 Ukraine 291 Ule, Willi 128

[373]

246NN_tx.indd 373

10/02/2016 14:50

how to read water

underground water 62, 65–6, 66 undertow 229underwater: eddies 80

lightning 323seeing underwater 117–18, 119,

132–3, 321 sounds 109–10 swimming 321

UNESCO World Heritage Sites 228 United States of America 172, 221 Upland mayflies 92upland rivers 59–60, 70

Uranus 126 urchins 238US Marines 257

Vancouver Island 79Vega 287, 291, 327Venezuela 252Venus 58, 126, 287Vergette, Marcus 243verrucaria lichen 239vibrations, Seismometer puddles

57–8Viccars, George 145Victoria and Albert Museum,

London 130Vikings, navigation 325–31 villages, and springs 56 visibility: at coastline 201–3

lighthouses 282–3

shipping forecasts 202 vision 22, 57, 156–7 volcanoes 310vortices: eddies 78–80

Langmuir circulation 318 plugholes 314–16 whirlpools 318

wadis, flash floods 64wagtails 69, 90wakes: boats 304–5, 306–8, 307

ducks 32, 33 Wales 70, 213–14

[374]

walls, and wind 112walruses 155Warao people 252Warsash Maritime Academy 4 water: capillary action 17–19, 20

colour of 116–29 density 108meniscus 13, 18 molecules 14, 16–17 ‘stickiness’ 14–18, 246 surface 13–14

surface tension 16–17 water cycle 62 water-sound maps 146–58 water table 62, 65–6, 66 water tracking 305–8 weight of 81

see also lakes; ponds; puddles; rivers; seas

water avens 39Water Boatman 113–14water buttercup 67water crowfoot 67water lilies 68, 110water milfoil 110–11water rats 73water voles 73, 104Waterfall Swallet, Derbyshire 154 waterfalls 147–8, 148, 153–6 waterspouts 316–17Watson, Chris 68–9waves 159–87

anatomy 161and beaches 223birth of 162–3, 165–6, 168 breaking 182–7, 184clapotis 174–5, 174at coastline 172–87crests 173–4, 182, 183, 184, 185 currents and 247definition 25diffracted waves 179–82, 179,

180

energy 159–60, 166, 171

246NN_tx.indd 374

10/02/2016 14:50

fetch 168, 170, 171glitter paths 138–41, 139, 197–9 gravity waves 166height 161, 162, 168, 181, 183,

185–6, 310–11interference patterns 32–3, 141 and islands 27–31, 32, 181 Kelvin waves 309–10and longshore drift 234at night 171oscillating waves 186–7, 230–1 period 161–2, 166, 171–2, 176 reflected waves 173–5, 174and reflections 133refracted waves 175–9, 177and rip currents 225–6rogue waves 312–14, 313signs of shallower water 182–3 sound waves 155speed 162, 171, 175–6, 187in storms 171–2tidal bores 312trains 186translation waves 187troughs 173–4, 182tsunamis 159, 310–11types of 162–3undertow 229wakes 304–5, 306–8, 307 wavelengths 161–2, 172, 176,

247

see also swell
weather: Coriolis Effect 315

and height of sea 19–20 squalls 208–9see also storms; wind

weather forecasting: Beaufort Scale 170–1

shipping forecasts 171, 202 swell and 172with animals and plants 216,

239, 241webs, spiders’ 41, 237, 241 weight of water 81

index

west, cardinal marks 275–7West Wittering, West Sussex 223 Westray Firth 326wetlands 66Weymouth 291whales 109–10, 325, 328, 331 wheat, as sound barrier 150 whelk cases 238whirlpools 318white light 119–20, 127white water, sound of 149–50,

154–5white-water rapids 83–5 Wikipedia 329 Will-o’-the-Wisps 319Willis, David 189‘williwaws’ 206willowherbs 68willows 38, 38, 40, 68, 72, 90,

150wind: breezes 111, 112–13, 205–6

cat’s paws 163coastal winds 204–9, 207 and currents 245–6, 247–8 direction of 142and direction of rain 53 eddies 219and foam 127and fog 203and glitter paths 140 katabatic winds 206, 329 landing aircraft 251local winds on lakes 113and longshore drift 234 moving sand on beaches 236 and obstacles 111–12Pacific Island navigators 27 prevailing winds 27, 53, 246 and reflections 137and ripples 22–6, 25, 162,

163–4and sailing 295–8 and seasons 27 slippery water 319

[375]

246NN_tx.indd 375

10/02/2016 14:51

how to read water

slowed by friction 206–8and sounds 147, 152–3, 155 speed 168–71, 219squalls 208–9storm surges 265and tides 265typhoons 7waterspouts 316–17and waves 159–60, 165–6, 168,

185weather forecasts 170–1 wind compasses 204–5 wind shadows 112 windrows 317–18

Winkler, Captain 26, 28Winnall Moors, Hampshire 39–40

Winner Bank, Chichester harbour

274wood: driftwood 240

wooden maps 209–10, 211 Worthington, A.M., A Study of

Splashes 51–2, 52wrecks: as breeding grounds 238

lighthouses and 279at low tides 261 navigational lights 278 rogue waves 312–14

xanthoria lichen 239, 306

yachts see boats; sailing yellow lights 278

Like this article?

For a complete guide to Natural Navigation read Tristan’s books.