The Natural Explorer by Tristan Gooley

Cover Photo

Index

Abbas the Great 22
Aboriginals 18–19, 138, 173, 176, 262 Abram, David 112
Abu Ya’qub Yasaf 187
Abyssinia 85
acacias 132, 261
academic specialisation 300
acidic minerals/soil 26, 75–6, 77 Ackerman, Diane 277
Addison, Joseph 238
Aeolus 130
Afghanistan 34, 277
African Association 31
afterlife 269
Agassiz, Louis 63, 64, 65
agrimony 36
air 36, 121–3, 286 see also sky
town 155, 213
Akkadian empire 207
alcohol 196–7
alkaline minerals/soil 75, 76, 77 almond blossom 201
alpine buttercups 37
alpine ibex 48
alpine mouse-ear 76
Alps 52
Amazon, river 243
Amberley 149–50, 180
America see North America; South
America
Amondawa 286
Amundsen, Roald 4, 5, 248
Andes 44
Andre, Carl 219
Andromeda Galaxy 238
Angkor, Cambodia 200
animals 84–98 see also specific species
beach 56–7
birds see birds
communication 96–8, 301 fossils 44, 72
hibernating 91
human animal see people migration 234
and the moon 232
mountain 48
and plants 92, 95
and their tracks 218, 214–20 and time 230, 234
tool-using 96
and trees 101, 166–7
and the weather 93–4, 127, 128
Antalya 266–7 Antarctica 4–6 ants 95
Apollo 167
apple trees 159 apples, spiced 287 Apsu 114
Arabian deserts 18
Arabs 18, 192
Ararat, Mount 48
Arctic 204, 212
arctic tern 92
Argentina 127, 151, 162, 199 Armenia 48
art 52, 215–16, 267, 278, 289, 297, 300, 301–3, 306
paintings see paintings Artemisia 30–1
Arun, river 205, 292 Arundel 242
Castle 15, 242
ash tree of San Lorenzo de Escorial
Index
271–2 Asians 171
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Atwood, Margaret 25
Augustine of Hippo 228, 299
aurora borealis 119–20
Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice 250 Australia 49, 74, 104, 133, 138, 166,
191, 235
Aveni, Anthony 114
awareness 18–19, 35, 123, 129, 173,
227, 269, 281, 286, 293, 298–9,
302, 303 see also senses heightened 19, 176, 269, 307 lack of 18, 156
awe 73, 295–6, 297 see also wonder Azores High 134
backgammon 176–7
Bacon, Francis 179 Badakhshan 220, 277 Baganda 270
Baghdad 213, 266
Bagnold, Ralph Alger 100 Bain, James Leith Macbeth 155 Balder (god) 146, 147
Balzac, Honoré de 8
Banks, Sir Joseph 2, 31, 101–2 Bantu 191
Baobab tree 124
Barbot, John 173
barefoot walking 26–7, 155 basalt 74, 76, 102
Basra 213
Baucis 167
Baudelaire, Charles 154, 178 beaches 54–61
beauty 268, 273–9, 296, 299
and colour 142–3
objectifying of natural beauty 275–6 Bedouin 18, 318
bedrock 77–8
bees 91–2, 104–5, 300
Befaria 35
belladonna 277
Benjamin, Walter 156, 177–8 Bering, Vitus 89
Berra, Yogi 278
Beston, Henry 280
Betjeman, John 122–3
Bingham Canyon Mine, Utah 183 biological clocks 229–35, 286 birds 85, 86, 88, 90–1, 92, 93, 94,
301 see also specific species coastland 59, 212
[348]
harvesting of nocturnal birds 265 nests 104, 105, 238
and still water 137–8
bison 234
Black Elk 238
blackberries 224, 308 bladderwrack 212
Blake, William 82, 94
Blawith Common 79
Bligh, William 37
blind spots 19
blindness 22–3, 132
blood pressure 289–90
blue light 144, 146, 287
Bodhi tree 167
body language 176
body odour 171
bogs 75, 109, 139
Bond Head, Sir Francis, 1st Baronet
50, 116, 136, 151, 193, 199, 250, 313 Borrow, George 69
Bougainville, Louis-Antoine,
Comte de 37
boundaries, natural 201–3 Bourdillon, Francis William 294–5 Bowles, Paul 303
brain 147–8, 284
Brazil 160, 163, 195, 222
Brigalow trees 164
British Airways 283
Brittany 60
Bryant, William C. 113
Buckland, William 63–4, 65
Buddha 167
Buddhism 167, 240, 267, 270–1, 299
Zen see Zen
Bulgars 269–70
Bullers of Buchan 73–4
burials 269
Burke, Edmund 274, 277, 279 Burmeister, Hermann 163
Burton, Sir Richard 22, 191–2, 258 buttercups, alpine 37
butterflies 92, 93
Buyuk Menderes, river 243
Byrd, Richard 1
Byrd, William 133
Byron, George Gordon,
6th Baron 115
C. Leichhardti 300 Cadaqués 61
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Caesar, Julius 206
Cage, John 284
Cairngorms 45–6, 109–10, 210, 249 cairns 95, 220
calendars 118, 232
California 16, 78, 210
Calvino, Italo 250, 286 Cambodia/Cambodians 172, 200 camels 91, 192
Canada 14, 60, 201, 234, 237 Canary Islands 134
Tenerife 46–7, 121 cannibalism 293 Canogou, Pic 48
Cape Cod 80
Cape Verde islands 70, 91, 132, 134, 200 Santiago 70–2, 200
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da 27–8, 201
Caripe 265
Cartier, Jacques 232
Catalonia 48, 61
cattle 94, 138
Ceylon 49
Cézanne, Paul 117, 302
chalk 72–3, 74
change, attitudes to 189, 228 Channel Islands 58
Chapel in the Rock 271 Chateaubriand, François-René de 8 Chernobyl disaster 281
cherry blossom 201, 268
chess 176–7
chiaroscuro 201
chicken 90–1
chickweed 36
Un Chien Andalou (Bunuel and Dali
film) 22
children 27, 57, 112, 154, 192, 197,
air 135, 213
city gates 203
and the countryperson 178 rivers in 213–14
space 153–4, 213
trees 161
Clark, William 211–12 clay 75, 77, 78 climate
ice ages 64–5 microclimates 133–4 and mountains 46
clocks 236
biological 229–35, 286
284, 297
desire to have 304
Chile 44, 136, 184–5, Santiago 136
chimpanzees 96–7 China 260
240–1
animals 96–8, 247, 301 by explorers 301–7 human skill of 301
companions 248–55
condors 93
Conrad, Joseph 110 Constantine the Great 107 contrast 47, 108–9, 198–204
chiaroscuro 201 control, yearning for 35 Cook, James 2, 37, 199 Copenhagen 151–2 copper 183
Chinese paintings 111, 122
Three Gorges Dam chlorophyll 143 Christianity 107, 210, Churchill, Winston 6 cicadas 235 cities/towns 110, 122,
214
240, 266–8
124, 149–57, 238
clothing 257–8
clouds 121, 122, 126, 127–8, 131 coal 80, 184
coastlines 53–61, 201
coastal plants 58, 59, 212, 224
coastland birds 59, 212 Cochrane, John Dundas 187–8 cockerels 267
cockles 57
coconuts 37
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 170,
249–50
Colombia 261 colour 142–8, 200–1
and the human brain 147–8, 287 and human judgment 288
and memory 146
and mood 287
perceiving and distinguishing colours 21–2, 147, 287
and perception of time 282 of plants 143
of the sky 115–16
comets 119
communication see also language
index
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Coquimbo 44
corals 55, 232, 240
Corcovado (mountain) 127 Cordova-Rios, Manuel 195–6
Coriolis effect 134
cork trees 165, 184
Cornish, Vaughan 41–2, 294, 301, 313 Cornwall 60, 61, 159, 271
Cowley, Abraham 273
crabs 57, 212
Cree 214
Cro-Magnons 234
crocodiles 96
crows 96
Cuba 153
Cuevas, Amparo 272
customs 256–62
cyanometers 115
cyclical events 26, 64–5, 117–18, 207,
230–4, 238, 281–3
dance 261
Danish scurvygrass 224
Dante Alighieri 115
darkness 108–9, 110, 111, 112
chiaroscuro 201
Dartmoor 75
Darwin, Charles 8, 22, 44, 47, 57,
70–2, 89, 91, 122, 126–7, 128, 132, 162, 168, 175–6, 184, 193, 200, 222, 240–1, 251, 314
Deakin, Roger 286 deer 9, 127, 167
hunt 17
Denecourt, Claude-François
220–1
Denmark 154
Dennis, Felix 164
Dennis, John 290
Derges, Susan 215–16 Devil’s Beeftub 67
dew 244
dew ponds 75
Dickens, Charles 155 diluvial theory 63–4 Disney, Walt 178
Djenne 82
Doggerland 238 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor 301–2 Douglas, Charles 88 dragon tree 203
dragons 48
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drink 192, 195–7
drinking habits 258 drinking water 139, 207
Druids 38
dry-stone walls 202
du Noüy, Pierre Lecomte 283–4 dunes 59, 107
Durrell, Lawrence 26
Earth 68–83
climate see climate
crust 44, 45, 72, 73 magma 44, 72 Milankovitch cycles 64–5 orbit 64–5, 230
rocks see rocks
soil see soil
spin 65, 134
tectonic plates 44–5, 78 tilt 65
earthquakes 44–5, 50, 78 Easter Island 124
eating habits 258
Eaton, Charlotte Anne 239 Eberhardt, Isabelle 253 Ecuador 42
Edinburgh 152
Egypt 95, 211
Egyptian pyramids 304
Egyptians 118, 207, 209, 210–11 Elements, four 35–6
elephants 86, 91, 257
Eliot, T.S. 309
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 88, 300 emotion 8, 25, 35, 107, 171, 172, 183,
269, 279, 283–4, 295–7, 301 see
also mood
of enlightenment 297 see also wonder and mountains 51–2, 290
and the sense of smell 25
empathy 171
Empty Quarter, Arabian Peninsula 79,
130–1
England 3, 36, 74, 94, 124, 176, 184,
190, 202, 244, 250, 259, 277 enlightenment 271
satori 299
and wonder 297–8 Enuma Elish myth 113–14 equator 119
Equiano, Olaudah 259
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erosion 45, 59–60, 74 Eskimos 248 see also Inuits Essaouira 267
Estonia ferry disaster 281 estuaries 212–13
eucalypts 165, 166 Euphrates, river 206–7 Evening Primrose 233 Everest, Mount 46, 49 evolutionary theory 57 Exodus 206
Exxon Valdez disaster 281 eye pupils 175, 277
eye stones 54–5
eyesight see sight
fashion 257–8
fasting 191–2
fauna see animals
Fez 90
Fibonacci series 106 Fingal’s Cave 102, 104 Fire 36
firs 166
flâneurs 154, 155–6 Flaubert, Gustave 8 flooded-gum trees 79 floods 63, 207, 253
Noah and the great flood 63
flora see plants
flowers 15, 34, 39, 59, 75, 76, 77, 106,
274 see also specific species and the beauty of colour 143 to disguise smells 155
and insects 92
and time 233–4
fog 121, see also mist smog 155
Fohn effect 135
folklore 39, 94, 146
Font de Gaume cave 234 Fontainebleau forest 220 food 190–5
eating habits 258
Forest Schools initiative 154 forests/woodlands 163–5, 166, 167,
183–4 paths 220–1
rainforests 166 fossils 300–1
Foster, Russell 281
France 52, 59, 203, 214, 234, 257, 291
Frazer, Castle 117 free market 188 French 188, 259 frogs 133
Fuegians 175, 184–5 fugu fish 194
Fuji, Mount 43, 49, 51 Fujin (god) 130
fungi 39, 133, 193
galaxies 112, 238 Galileo 282
Gallia Narbonsensi 230 Gambia 31
games 176–7
gardens 179
gazing 175
Gefion (goddess) 152 Geneva 203
George III 1
Georgia 6
Germany 293
Giant Sequoias 237
Gibbon, Edward 222–3
Gilpin, William 108, 110, 187, 252,
273–6, 314 glaciers 45, 65–7, 74
glacial theory 64–5 glow-worms 94
gneiss 73
Goat’s Hole Cave, Paviland 269 Gobi desert 192
godwits 212
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 8, 295 gold 7, 75, 167, 173, 181, 182 Gooley, Tristan, account of a walk see
West Sussex walk gorillas 96
gorse 30
granite 72, 73, 79
Grant, Robert Edmond 57 grasses 36, 37–8
Greece 46, 116, 200 green light 146, 147
gum trees 79
habits 256–62
hailstones 127
Halifax 64
hallucinogenics 196
halos, of sun or moon 107, 117, 128,
130
index
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Hamerton, Philip Gilbert 143 Hanbury-Tenison, Robin 254 Hardy, Thomas 156
hares 235
Harkhuf (Egyptian explorer) 211 Harrison, Jim 219
Hathaway, Mary Ann 294
Havana 153
Hawaii 42–3, 199
Hayes, Keith and Cathy 96–7 heather 79
Hebrides 101, 116
hedgehogs 91, 93–4
hedges 202
Hedin, Sven 192
Hehaka Sapa 238
Heidegger, Martin 22
Heine, Heinrich 109
Heraclitus 280–1
Hercules 167
Hesiod 230–1
Hevea brasiliensis 160
hexagons 104–5
Hillary, Sir Edmund 50
hills see mountains/hills
Himalayas 45, 109
Himba 21–2
hippopotamus 95
Hogarth, William 106
holm oak 167
Holman, James 22–3, 26–7, 28, 194,
223, 257–8, 290–1, 304, 314–15 Homer 190
honeycombs 104–5
Honister 66
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton 35, 224 Hooper, Max 202
Hooper’s Hypothesis 202
Hopkins, Gerard Manley 285–6 horizon 124
horseflies 236
horses 91, 95, 97–8
Hoskins, W.G. 120
Houghton Bridge 180, 190, 198, 205 Houghton, Daniel 31
Hsuan Tsang 223
Hudson, Henry 239
Hudson, W.H. 211
Hugo, Victor 8, 198
Hull, John 132
Humboldt, Alexander von 8, 25–6, 28,
35, 37, 46–7, 54–5, 63, 90, 109, [352]
114–15, 119, 121, 134, 162–3, 172, 180, 181–2, 193, 203, 221, 228–9, 243, 242–5, 247, 259, 261, 265–6, 289, 292, 293, 307, 315
Huni Kui 195 Hunter, John 67 hunting ritual 17 Hurd, Richard 171–2 Hutton, James 237
Iceland 101
Ibn Battuta 185, 186, 213, 218, 254,
266–7, 313
Ibn Fadlan, Ahmad 269–70 Ibn Juzayy 213
ice ages 64–5
igneous rock 72, 74 imagination 111, 292–5
and senses 155
India 82, 86, 90, 177, 188, 189, 224,
250
insects 91–3, 95–6, 104–5, 234, 235 inspiration, sources of 7, 22, 49, 61,
73, 96, 154, 271 Internet 306
Inuits 204
Invorokiamo 265
Ireland 1, 4, 191, 267 Ironbridge 213
Ishi, a Yahi (of the Yana people)
16–17, 232 Islamic calendar 232 Italy 46, 160
jade dealers 175
jaguars 128
Japan 43, 50, 70, 153, 171, 194,
270–1 jasmine 233
Jefferies, Richard 142 Jefferson, Thomas 182 Jesus Christ 228, 271 jet lag 283
Jews 267
Johnson, Samuel 74, 242, 246, 303–4 Jones, Robert 52
Jones, Sian 154
Jordan, river 210
Joshua trees 159–60
Jung, Carl Gustav 33, 137, 268 Jupiter (god) 167
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Jupiter (planet) 118, 215 Justinian, emperor 210
kahikateas 161, 166
Kalahari 19, 87, 124, 131–2, 268 Kanchau 260
Keats, John 52
Keller, Helen 130
Kinder Scout 203
Kingdon-Ward, Frank 34 Kingsley, Charles 253
knowledge
communication of see communication of crocodiles (Pliny’s view) 96 desire for 35
drowning in 9
and income 188 local 186 specialisation of 300
kookaburras (laughing jackasses) 235 Koyukon Indians 253
Krakatoa volcano 111–12
Kreitzman, Leon 281
lagoons 138
Lake District 74, 79, 207 lakes 109
Lamb, F. Bruce 195 language 242–7
and animals 96–8, 247
body language 173–4, 176
human skill of communication 301
Lanzarote 45
Lao Tzu 214
laughing jackasses (kookaburras) 235 laurels 167
lavender 287
Lawers, Ben (mountain) 76 Leichhardt, Ludwig 3, 17–19, 25, 38,
51, 74, 76, 78–9, 86–7, 88, 104, 105, 128, 133, 138, 144, 164, 172, 173, 195, 235, 245, 262, 284, 285, 300–1, 315–16
Leonardo da Vinci 179, 214 Leopold, Leo 106
Leray, Jean 214
Lewis, Meriwether 182–3
lichens 33, 35, 36, 45, 58, 59, 184,
212, 240, 275 light 108–12, 117
chiaroscuro 201
and colour 142–5 refracted 144 white 143, 144
lightning 39, 132–3, 167 see also thunderstorms
limestone 70, 72, 73, 74, 79, 182 Linnaeus, Carl 233
literature 214, 216, 279, 297, 302 Lithuania 184
Livingstone, David 304 Llandudno 134
Loch Ness 45
Loki (god) 146–7
London 155, 156, 176, 206
Oxford Street 213–14
London plane tree 161
loneliness 171, 247, 248, 252–4
Long Island 112
Long, Richard 303
Lubbock, John 43, 91–2, 142, 202, 316 Ludlow, Fitz Hugh 302
lugworms 56–7
Lummis, Charles 108
Mabey, Richard 86 Macfarlane, Robert 295 madake 39
Madrid 271
Maeshowe tomb 179 magma 44, 72
Mallory, George 49, 109 mammoth 234
Manaus 160
mangroves 37
Maori 161
Mapani trees 239
marble 27, 73, 155, 160, 182 Marduk 114
‘mares’ tails’ 126, 129 Markham, Sir Clements 5 Mars 114
marshes 109
Mary, Virgin 272
Masamune, Date 51
Massachusetts 159
Al-Masudi, Abu al-Hasan Ali 80–2, 95,
116, 135, 172, 176–7, 257, 300, 316 mathematics 105–6, 107, 214
Mauna Kea 42–3
Mayhew, Henry 84
meditation 111, 288, 299
index
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memory 18, 283, 286 and colour 146 restored 286
and smell 200
Mercury 118
Meredith, George 131 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 302 metamorphic rock 73, 74
Mexico 35, 45, 123, 124, 316 microclimates 133–4
migration, animal 234
Milankovitch cycles 64–5
Milky Way 112
Millais, John Everett 145
mimicry 175
minerals 48, 75–6, 77, 79, 83, 182–3
see also mining; rocks and water 83, 139
Minerva 167
mining 80, 181, 182, 183, 184 Mississippi river 207
Missouri river 212
mist 122, 209
mistletoe 38
Mohammed Ben Abdullah 267 molehills 95
molluscs 57, 138
money and worldly goods 180–89 Mongolia 26
Mont Blanc 297
Monte Testaccio 41
mood see also emotion
influences on 287–91 of the observer 136 and water 141
moon 18, 38, 91, 107, 117–18, 120, 124–5, 231–2
halos 107, 117, 128 moraines 65–6 Mormons 160 Morocco 267
moss 38, 76
moths 92, 95–6
Mouhot, Henri 200
mountains/hills 40–52, 121, 127, 170,
207, 295
climbing 47, 49–52, 121, 270, 290 emotional reactions to 51–2, 290 Japanese relationship to 270–1
in mist 122
and rivers 48, 207, 209, 210
and spirituality 50, 270–1
[354]
mud 25–6, 82 estuarine 212
mugwort 30–1
Muir, John 123, 131, 132, 153, 161,
178, 226, 252, 271, 286, 316–17 Munch, Edward 112
mushrooms 39
music 279, 288, 296, 297
musk 287
Muslims 135, 267
myrtles 167
myth 93, 113–14, 146–7, 152, 159,
164, 167, 189
Nanna (goddess) 146, 147 Napoleon I 26
Native Americans 37, 55, 128,
133, 225
nature see also animals; birds; Earth; plants
beauty of see beauty
colours of see colour
harmony of 291
the human animal in the natural
world 170–9
human attitudes to 50–1, 55, 289
see also Romanticism immersion in 289
and mathematics 105–6, 107,
214–15
natural boundaries 201–3 natural features see specific features
and habitats
and religion 49, 50, 210, 268–71 shapes of see shapes, natural
as a source of inspiration see
inspiration, sources of and wonder see wonder
Navajo 123
Necho, king of Egypt 207
Needles 73
Nelson, Richard 253
Nepal 48
New York 239
New Zealand 161, 215
Newby, Eric 191
Niagara Falls 222
night sky 112, 118–20 see also moon;
stars
Nile, river 96, 118, 206, 207–8, 211 Nixi Xuma Waki 196
Noah 63
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Norfolk 86
North America 35, 37, 116, 159–60,
172, 238–39
Native Americans 37, 55, 128, 133,
235
sediment moving 188
North Pole 4, 230 North Stoke 263–4, 292 Northern Lights 119–20 Norway 112
Nova Scotia 64
Nubians 211
O’ Keeffe, Georgia 227
oak trees 161, 165, 167, 184, 239 Odysseus 130
olive trees 167
olives 192–3
Olmsted, Frederick Law 222 Omai 1–3, 176
Orellana, Francisco de 243
Orion 119
Oroville 16
Osiris 207
Osten, Wilhelm von 97–8
Pacific islands 188
Pacific Ocean 201
paddy fields 48
paintings 1, 9, 112, 117, 139, 145,
201, 289, 302 Chinese 111, 122 Paleolithic 234
Paleolithic paintings 234 Pallasmaa, Juhani 111 palolo worm 232
Pappus of Alexandria 104–5 Paricutin volcano 42
Paris 156, 214
Park, Mungo 31–3
paths 218–26
Paton, Andrew Archibald 254–5 peacocks 145–6
Peary, Robert 4
peat bogs 75, 139
Pedro III of Aragon 48
Peel, Sir Robert 64
people
attitudes to nature 50–1, 55, 289 see also Romanticism
index
body language 173–4, 176
body odour 171
camouflage and concealment 171,
174, 175
communication 301, 301–07 see also
language
companions 248–55
customs and habits 256–62 emotions see emotion
the human animal in the natural
world 169–179
language see language
new generation of explorers 301–07 reading human nature 171–5 relationships with trees 159–63 religion see religion
social conventions 176
spirituality 50, 271, 297–9
sports and games 176–7
strangers 181, 251, 260
and time 228, 232–7, 280–87 wealth and worldly goods 180–89
pepper moth 92 perception 136
and distinguishing of colours 21–2, 143–4, 287–08
and names 244
sight see sight
perspective 51–2
Peter, St 267
Pfungst, Oskar 97
Philae 210
Philemon 167
photoperiodism 233–4
Piccardi, Luigi 45
pigeons 88, 90, 124, 138
pineapple weed 36, 224
pines 159, 163, 166
pink-footed goose 86
Pistyll Rhaeadr 69–70
Pittendrigh, Colin 232–3
planets 114, 118, 120, 167, 215, 303 plantains 224
plants 30–9 see also specific species and animals 92, 95
coastal 58, 59, 212, 224 colour 143
flowers see flowers
lichens see lichens
mountain 37, 47, 48
on paths and verges 14–15, 30, 223–4 photoperiodism 233–4
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and rocks 75–9
seeds see seeds
and soil 75–82, 132 and time 230, 233–4 trees see trees
weeds 36, 95, 224 and wind 36, 37, 134
Plato 149, 156–7
Plautus 236–7
Pleiades 230
Plenty Kill (Luther Standing Bear) 225 Pliny the Elder 14, 38–9, 91, 93–4, 96,
158, 165, 167, 182, 230, 317 Plutarch 156
podocarps 161
pollution 92, 122, 161
and lichens 36
Polo, Marco 48, 49, 85, 129–30, 162,
188, 197, 207, 220, 235, 250,
253–4, 259–60, 264, 266, 277, 317 Poncins, Gontran de 203–4
poplars 167
poppies 34
Potter, Dennis 279
poverty 109, 184–5, 188–9, 276 Powys 69
prayer 228
Pretty, Jules 189
prisms 147
Proust, Marcel 26
Przhevalsky, Nikolai 209 Puddicombe, Andy 299
puddles 68, 137, 139–40, 141 Punch 92
pupils (eye) 175, 277
Quebec 214, 232 Queensland 38, 51, 76, 104,
164, 262, 300 Quiriquina 44
rabbits 17, 47, 84–5, 167
rain 26, 74–5, 77, 82, 85, 127, 131–2,
133, 139, 207, 209, 212 acidic 26
puddles 68, 137, 140, 141 raindrops 141, 144–5, 299
smells after 25–6
storms 211 see also thunderstorms
rainbows 117, 145 rainforests 166
[356]
rats 91
Raven-tree 161–2
red faces 174
red light 144, 145
reindeer 234
religion 263–72 see also Buddhism;
Christianity; spirituality; Taoism;
Zen
burial rituals 269–70
and change 240
and mountains 50, 270–1
and nature 49, 50, 210, 268–71 orthodoxy 63
places of religious significance 49, 50 religious buildings 267–8, 270 religious fasting 191–2
and rivers 210, 213
Rembrandt 201 Remus 159
Reykjavik 151 Reynolds number 215 Reynolds, Sir Joshua 1 rhododendrons 36 riches 181–89
rimus 166
rivers 96, 106, 118, 205–17, 243 see also
streams braided 215
estuaries 212–13
flow of 213–16
and mountains 48, 207, 209, 210 and the picturesque 275
shapes of 106, 211, 212, 243
in towns 213–14
roads 218–26 Roberts, Jason 23 rock pools 57 rocks 69–83, 202
of acidic minerals 75–6 of alkaline minerals 75 on the beach 57–8, 59 bedrock 77–8
erosion 45, 59–60, 74 and glaciers 45, 65–6 igneous 72, 74 metamorphic 73, 74 minerals see minerals moraines 65–6
oldest 237
and plants 75–9
sedimentary 44, 72, 73, 74, 75–6,
80, 104, 144
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and soil 75–82
volcanic 66, 70, 72, 74, 112 see also
granite
and wind 45, 73, 82
Rocky Mountains 207 Roggeveen, Jacob 124 Romanticism 8, 52, 115, 289 Rome 159, 238
Romulus 159
Rossetti, Christina 219 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 203 Royal Geographical Society 5 rubber 160
rugby 176
Rujm el-Hiri 124
Ruskin, John 62, 140–1, 155 Russia 197
Ryoan-ji Zen Garden 111
SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder)
282
Sahara 46, 66
St Petersburg 194
Salimbene of Parma 48
salt 36–7, 38, 212, 224
Saman tree 162–3
San Francisco 17, 78, 219
San Lorenzo de Escorial 271–2 San Luis 151
San Nicolas island 247
sand 54, 55–7, 77, 132
dunes 59, 107
storms 223
sandstone 72, 73, 74, 75–6, 104, 144 Sangay volcano 42
Santiago 70–2, 200
Sardinia 60
Sartre, Jean-Paul 167
Saturn 118
Saussure, Horace-Bénédict de 115, 302 saxifrage 75
Scafell Pike 207
Schama, Simon 270
Scheuchzer, Johann 48
Schiller, Friedrich 8
Schopenhauer, Arthur 299
Schwarz, Bill 283
scintillation 122
Scorpius 119
Scotland 64, 73–4, 110, 117, 170, 177,
237, 243
index
Highlands 45–6, 52, 76, 79, 109–10, 210, 236, 237, 249, 294
Scots pines 163
Scott, Robert Falcon 70
scurvygrass 224
sea bindweed 59
sea shells/shell fish 54–5, 57, 70–2 Seasonal Affective Disorder 282 seaweed 58
sediment 183
sedimentary rock 44, 72, 73, 74, 75–6,
80, 104, 144
seeds 33, 34, 37, 45, 106, 132, 159, 224 seek-no-further apple trees 159
Seine, river 214
Selenicereus cactus 39
self-mutilation 177
Seneca 185–6
senses 14–29, 196, 201
in cities 155–6
and imagination 155 Sequioas, Giant 237
sexual practices 259–62, 283 Shackleton, Sir Ernest 4–6, 253 shale 73
shapes, natural 99–107
influence of the shape of the land on the weather 134–5
of rivers 106, 211, 212, 243
of trees 166
sheep 74–5, 84–5, 94–5, 220, 227,
230
Shelley, Percy Bysshe 40, 297, 305 shells/shell fish 54–5, 57, 70–2, 138 Shepherd, Anna (Nan) 50–1, 109–10,
210, 235, 249, 317 shepherd’s purse 224 shingle beaches 58–9, 60 Shiprock 45
shooting stars 119, 244 Shoshonean tribe 247 Shugendo 271
sight 18–22 see also blindness
changes of perspective 51–2 silence 249, 288–9
silica 75, 76
silt 77
silverweed 280 Sioux 225, 238 Sirius 118 Sisarga 109
sky 112, 113–25 see also clouds
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‘mackerel’ 128
night sky 112, 118–20 slate 73
smell 25–6, 200, 287, 289, 293 body odour 171
flowers to disguise smells 155
smog 155
snow 33, 46, 50, 141, 143, 207
flakes 9, 104 lines 47, 134 melting 48, 223
soil 36, 45, 75, 77–8, 80, 82, 95, 132
acidic 26, 75–6, 77
alkaline 75, 76, 77
industrial moving of earth and
sediment 183
mud 25–6, 82
and plants 75–82, 132 and rocks 75–82
smell 25–6
Solitary Tree 162
solitude 169–7, 253 see also loneliness Solnit, Rebecca 52, 203, 246, 303 Solomon 271
solstices 230
sound 23, 58, 95, 131–2, 149, 150,
155, 198, 239, 289, 293–4, 301 and language 245
and silence 249, 288–9
South Africa 60, 318
South America 90, 160, 175
Argentina 127, 151, 162
Brazil 160, 163, 195–6, 222 Chile 44, 70–2, 136, 184–5, 203,
240–1
Fuegians 175, 184–5
Venezuela 37, 54–5, 162–3, 181–2,
193–4, 221, 228–9, 242–3,
265–6, 292–3 Wollaston Islands 184–5
South Downs 74–5
South Georgia 132, 253
South Pole 4–5
South Stoke 242, 308
Spain 183, 221, 265 specialisation, academic 300 Speke, John Hanning 206, 270 spiders 91
spirit 268
spirituality 50, 271, 297–9 see also
religion
[358]
Spode, Eugene 296 spruces 166, 184
Staffa 102
Standing Bear, Luther 225 starfish 57
stars 19, 91, 118–19, 122, 230, 303 Andromeda Galaxy 238
Milky Way 112
Steller, Georg 89
Stevenson, Robert Louis 218 stone walls 202
Stonehenge 124, 267
storms
hail 127
rain 210
sand 223
thunder 28, 129–30, 132–3 see also
lightning strandlines 58, 61
strangers 181, 251, 260 stravitza 197
streams 36, 48, 207, 275 Stribog (god) 130
sugar cane 37
sun 35, 36, 37, 64, 91, 116–18, 120,
124–5, 134, 229–30, 238
halos 107, 117, 128, 130
and moon 231–2
sunsets 111, 112, 146, 228, 229–30,
301
and time 116, 229–30, 231, 237 and trees 166
and the weather 127, 128, 130,
134, 136 sunflowers 106
superstition 265
Suzuki, D.T. 49–50, 51, 263, 269 swallows 94
swamps 109
Sweden 152, 184, 289 Switzerland 64, 203
Tabris 185
Tae Kwon Do 288
tafoni 73
Taishan, Mount 49
Tanizaki, Jun’ichiro 109, 110 Taoism 214, 216
Tartars 235–6
taste 28
Taw, river 215–16
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Tchuktchi 187
tectonic plates 44–5, 78
Tehachapi Mountains 210
Teide, Mount 46, 47
Tenerife 46–7, 121, 203
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord 30
Tenzing, Norgay 50
Teotihuacan 124
terns, common 59
Testaccio, Monte 41
testosterone 283
tetrodoxin 194
Thames, river 106
theft 32, 188, 204
Thesiger, Wilfred 18, 79, 130–1, 192,
253–4, 317–18
Thlaspi caerulescens 77
Thomas, Dylan 29
Thompson, Sir D’Arcy Wentworth
99
Thompson, David 201, 234
Thor 146
Thoreau, Henry David 51, 154, 219,
221, 252, 294, 318
Three Gorges Dam, China 214 Three Mile Island disaster 281 Thubron, Colin 185, 199, 248, 252 thunderstorms 28, 129–30, 132–3 see
also lightning thyme 230
Tiamat 114
Tiberinus 159
Tibet 34, 109, 129–30, 260 tides 57–8, 212, 215
Tierra del Fuego 193 Tigris, river 206, 213 Timbuktu 31
time 227–41
and animals 230, 234
colour and the perception of 282 and cyclical events 26, 64–5,
117–18, 207, 230–4, 238, 281–3 cyclical view of 238, 240
inner 280–91
living for the moment 228
and the moon 231–2 photoperiodism 233–4
and regeneration 238
and the sun 116, 229, 230, 231, 237
Tintern Abbey 108, 252, 275, 276 Titanic disaster 281
Tombstone Creek 104
index
touch 27–8
towns see cities/towns
tracks 218–26
train journeys 225–6, 285
trees 79, 124, 126–7, 158–67, 201, 203
see also specific species
age of 166
and animals 101, 166 blossom 201, 268 dedicated to gods 167
and economic development
159–61, 183–4
and environmental extremes 165 and fire 165
forests see forests/woodlands
in hedges 202
human relationship with 159–63, 167 in mist 122
of New York 239
and rocks 76
shape of 166
of spiritual significance 167, 271
as symbols of regeneration 239
in towns 161
tree lines 47, 134
woodlands see forests/woodlands wounds 166–7
Tudge, Colin 166
tufa 70
Twain, Mark 186, 205, 256 Tweedsmuir Kirkhead 66–7 twilight 111
Tyburn, river 214
Tyndall, John 268
Uluru, Mount 49
Union Carbide plant disaster 281 United States of America see North
America Urals 45
Vaju (god) 130
valleys 62–7
van der Post, Sir Laurens Jan 19, 87,
124, 131–2, 239, 296, 318
Van Gogh, Vincent 301
vanity 304–5
Venezuela 37, 54–5, 162–3, 181–2,
193–4, 221, 229, 242–3, 267–8, 293 Venus 114, 118, 120, 167, 303
verges 14–15, 30, 224
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Vesuvius 43, 294 Vidal, Gore 26 violet light 144 Virgil 94
vision 18–22 see also blindness volcanic rock 66, 70, 72, 74, 112 see
also granite
volcanoes 42–4, 46–7, 55, 70, 111–12
Waimakariri river 215 Wainwright, Alfred 126, 144 wakefulness 281, 287
Wales 135, 176, 224, 269 Walker, Helen 27
walking barefoot 26–7, 155 Walleechu (god) 162 Washington 124
water
drinking 140, 207
floods 63, 207, 253
flow of 213–16
global sea and fresh water volumes
212
maternal characteristic of 207–9 and minerals 83, 139
molecules 104
mountain 48
and plants 36, 48
puddles 68, 137, 139–40, 141 rain see rain
rivers see rivers
rock pools 57
sea water/waves 55–6, 58, 59 still 75, 109, 137–41
streams 36, 48, 207, 275 waterfalls 69–70, 133, 222
Waterloo 239
Watts, Alan 219
Wave Rock 104
waves 55–6, 58, 59
Way of St James 221
wealth 108–9, 180–189
weather 126–36 see also fog; rain;
storms; wind
and animals 93–4, 127, 128 influenced by the shape of the land
134–5
and microclimates 133–4
and the sun 127, 128, 130, 134, 136
Webber, J.B. 16 weeds 36, 95, 224 Weld, Isaac 159–60
[360]
Wells, H.G. 219
West Sussex walk 14–15, 30–1, 40–1,
53–4, 62–3, 68–9, 84–5, 99–100, 108, 113, 126, 137–8, 142, 149–50, 158–59, 180, 190, 198, 205–6, 218, 227, 242, 248, 256, 263–4, 273, 280, 292, 308
Weyl, Herman 278 whales 301
whale hunting 90
White, Gilbert 68, 76–7, 83, 139,
161–2, 223, 319
white light 143, 144
white noise 288
Whitefield, Patrick 36, 79, 139, 224,
244 willows 165
wind 55, 59, 127, 128–9, 130–1, 134–5 acceleration zones 134
and animals 93
gods 130
and plants 36, 37, 134 and rock 45, 73, 82 and spirit 268
Winnie the Pooh 217
witch hazel 33
Withnail and I 176
Wollaston Islands 184–5
wonder 8, 33, 52, 279, 296–298
and natural shapes 101, 107 woodlands see forests/woodlands Wordsworth, Dorothy 53, 170–1, 319 Wordsworth, William 52, 170, 219,
249–50
working habits 259 worldly goods 180–89
Yahi 16–17, 232
Yana 16–17
Yangtze river 214
yardangs 73
Yggdrasil tree 164 Younghusband, Sir Francis 298
Zalasiewicz, Jan 75 zamang de Guayare 162–3 Zealand 152
Zen
Ryoan-ji Zen Garden 111
satori 299
Zuni Indians 128

Content

Chapters

Index